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Russian gas export routes: pipes and gas carriers

Russian gas export routes: pipes and gas carriers

Gas exports are of significant importance for Russia. They are a source of money and foreign policy influence. Given declining gas production in the EU, growth in the gas demand in China and other Asia-Pacific countries, the issue of gas supplies is becoming more and more acute and politicized.

To some extent this is promoted by ambitions of Vladimir Putin, who is planning to turn Gazprom into a key player in the sphere of global energy security, the EU’s expansion at the cost of East European and Baltic states that have been practically fully dependant on Russian gas since the time of the Warsaw Pact and Soviet Union, as well as regular transit problems with Ukraine and Belarus.

Moscow expects a predictable and guaranteed demand, access to end users and advanced technologies of gas production and transportation from its European partners.

Brussels is trying to promote the idea of diversification of supplies and decreasing risks of monopolization of the gas market by its eastern neighbour. Russia proposes diversification of gas transportation routes bypassing transit countries and threatens to diversify its exports by organizing gas supplies to China and South Korea through pipelines and developing liquefied natural gas production. LNG will enable Russia to substantially broaden the geography of exports.

A new report by the NESF analyzes the current situation in the sphere of Russian gas exports researching important aspects of new directions of supplies as well as problems of relations with partners, buyers and transit states.

In the Report you will find detailed answers to the following questions:

  • Main directions of Russian gas exports: the current situation

    • Supplies to Europe
    • Transit via Ukraine and Belarus
    • Blue Stream and its role in Gazprom’s export strategy
  • The system of gas supplies and pricing on the market

    • Long-term contracts and development of supplies to end consumers
    • The spot market and its prospects
  • Gas battles against Europe

    • Restrictions of access of non-residents to Russian reserves
    • The third energy package as the European Commission’s response
    • War of concepts: agreement to the Energy Charter against conceptual approaches to a new legal base of international energy cooperation
    • Transit disputes
  • New projects and promising directions of Russian gas exports. LNG business development

    • Nord Stream instead of expanding Ukraine’s gas transportation system, construction of Yamal-Europe 2 and the Amber Baltic transit system
    • South Stream and competition against the southern gas corridor
    • Revival of the Blue Stream expansion project
    • Eastern export channel and new target markets
    • The role of LNG production development
    • Feasibility of Gazprom’s strategy of LNG business development and its potential problems
  • Forecast of the medium-term developments


The contents of the report:

Introduction 2
Chapter 1. Russian gas exports: main directions and current situation 3
1.1. Supplies of Russian gas to Europe and Turkey 6
1.2. Markets of the CIS and Baltic states 8
1.3. Gas supplies to Ukraine and Belarus. Constant risk of transit war 11
Chapter 2. Political games around gas exports 18
2.1. Gas as instrument of influence on international arena 18
2.2. Relations with the West. Restrictions for non-residents to access Russian reserves and the single export channel 20
2.3. Brussels stakes on diversification of sources, EC Third Energy Package and 20 20 20 Strategy 22
2.4. Russia’s tactics of pressurizing EU, Big Gas Troika and Gas Exporting Countries Forum 29
2.5. «Energy cold war» between Russia and EU after January crisis 33
Chapter 3. New projects and promising directions of Russian gas exports 37
3.1. Nord Stream instead of expanding Ukraine’s GTS, building Yamal-Europe-2 and transiting via Baltic states (Amber project) 38
3.2. Revival of Blue Stream expansion project 41
3.3. South Stream and competition against Southern Gas Corridor 42
3.4. Role of LNG production development 45
3.5. Gas supplies from Eastern Siberia and Far East through pipelines. Negotiations with China, South Korea and Japan 50
3.6. Gazprom’s activities on untraditional markets of oil and gas resources (Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia) 54
Chapter 4. Conclusions and forecasts 57
4.1. Gas exports during the crisis 57
4.2. Prospects of the EU gas market development 59
4.3. Forecast of development of Russia’s LNG projects and new pipeline routes 60
Date of issue July 13, 2009

If you are interested to obtain please contact » Elena Kim

Other issues:
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Analytical series “The Fuel and Energy Complex of Russia”:

Outlook for Russian LNG Industry
Russian Energy and West One Year after Ukraine Conflict Began: Are There Connections Still?
Green Agenda in Russia during Bitter Conflict with West
After February 2022 the agenda was radically rewritten. Western companies began leaving Russia en masse, economic relations with the West were drastically reduced, and the Russian economy began to be pushed violently from the global economic space, hemmed in by sweeping sanctions. All that was, to put it mildly, not the best background for talking about ESG. Especially because tasks of survival and stability under unprecedented pressure became the priority in the economy. In late 2022, however, attempts to reanimate the ESG agenda already became obvious. The message is put across insistently that it is important to Russia regardless of the foreign policy situation. While earlier the “green pivot” was seen as an opportunity to attract Western investors and their technological solutions to Russia, now Keynesian reliance on domestic manufacture is discussed.
Oil and Gas Sector Regulation in 2022 and Prospects for 2023
Gazprom at the Forefront of Economic and Political Battles with Europe
Gazprom is being actively thrown out of the market. Its annual supplies to Europe have shrunk from the previous 150 billion to 65 billion cubic metres of gas. European officials assure that they have already learnt how to live without Russian gas, so they will bring its purchases down to but nominal values in 2023. Their main hope is liquefied natural gas. Today the EU must make a crucial decision: whether it has passed the point of no return in gas business with Russia and whether it is certain that its economy will endure without supplies of Russian pipeline gas. Or, on the contrary, Europe will realise after all that the gas balance will not be achieved and the payment for so headlong a rush for LNG will be disproportionate. Assessment of the potential volume of LNG that will appear on the market before the end of the current decade will be the most important factor for making the decision.

All reports for: 2015 , 14 , 13 , 12 , 11 , 10 , 09 , 08 , 07

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